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动词不定式、动名词用法要点讲解

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

(山东日照广播电视大学 李莉)
    动词不定式和动名词的句法功能比较:
    (附图 {图})
    一、作主语
    ⒈不定式作主语
    动词不定式作主语时,句子的谓语动词常用单数,其位置有以下两种:
    (1)把不定式置于句首。如:
    To get there by bike will take us half an hour.
    (2)用it作形式主语,把真正的主语不定式置于句后,常用于下列句式中。如:
    ①It+be+名词+to do
    It's our duty to take good care of the old.
    ②It takes sb+some time+to do
    How long did it take you to finish the work?
    ③It+be+形容词+for sb+to do
    It is difficult for us to finish writing the compositionin a quarter of an hour.
    ④It+be+形容词+of sb+to do
    It is stupid of you to write down everything the teachersays.
    ⑤It seems(appears)+形容词+to do
    It seemed impossible to save money.
    在句型③中,常用表示客观情况的形容词,如:difficult,easy,hard,important,impossible,necessary 等;在句型④中,常用careless,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise等 表示赞扬或批评的词。在不定式前的sb,可看作其逻辑主语。这一句式有时相当于Sb is+形容词+to do句式 ,如:It'skind of you to help me with my English.=You are kind to helpme with my English.
    ⒉动名词作主语
    Learning without practice is no good.
    动名词作主语时,也常用It句式。如:
    ①It's +no good(no use,fun,a pleasure,a waste of time)+doing…
    It's no good reading in dim light.
    It's no use sitting here waiting.
    ②It's+形容词+doing
    It's dangerous swimming in the sea in windy days.
    这样用的形容词有expensive,nice,tiring等,但important,necessary则不适用于这种结构,应用不定式 代替,如:It'simportant for you to keep fit.
    ③There is no+doing
    There is no saying what will happen next.
    在这一结构中,动名词后常带宾语,相当于"It's impossible to…"结构。
    ⒊动词不定式和动名词作主语的区别
    ①不定式作主语经常表示具体动作,常与特定的动作执行者联系在一起;而动名词作主语经常表示抽象动 作,经常不与特定的动作执行者联系在一起。如:
    It's no good eating too much fat.
    It's no good for you to eat so much fat.
    ②动名词结构作主语,可以用名词或代词属格形式作逻辑主语。如:
    It's no use your pretending that you didn't know the rules.
    二、作宾语
    ⒈不定式作宾语
    ①以下动词后,只能跟不定式作宾语。如:agree,ask,aim,arrange,choose,decide,demand,expect,fail ,help,hope,lean,long,
manage,offer,plan,prepare,pretend,promise,refuse,wish等,这些词大部分可接th at引导的从句。如:
    I decided to ask for my money back.
    I decided that I would ask for my money back.
    When our visit to the farm was over,we expected to startback on foot.
&n

bsp;   When our visit to the farm was over, we expected that wewould start back on foot.

  

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