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如何掌握非限定动词

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

非限定动词即非谓语动词,是那些不能单独作谓语,在人称和数方面不受主语限定的,具有名词、形容词 和副词的某些特征的动词形式,是不定式、分词和动名词的总称。要想掌握非限定动词,首先要熟悉英语的句 子成分、时态及语态等,然后再了解非限定动词的特点、形式、作用及区别等。当然还要做些相关的习题。要 着重掌握以下内容。
    一.非限定动词的否定
    not须加在非限定动词之前。加强语气时用never代替not。
    1. 不定式的否定形式:I promised not to be late. You'dbetter not say that again.
    2.动名词的否定形式:Please excuse his not writing to you.
    3.分词的否定形式:Not having done his job, he is notallowed to go out.
    4.强调时的否定形式:Though never defeated in battle, theyfinally surrendered.
    二.非限定动词的完成式、进行式完成进行式及被动式
    1.完成式表示动作已经(或本应)完成,往往强调其动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前。
    I'm sorry to have woken you up.
    He intended to have come yesterday.
    Having failed twice, he didn't want to try again.
    2.进行式表示动作正在进行(或反复发生),有时强调某种情感。
    I pretended to be reading the newspaper.
    I don't want you to be forever finding fault with me.
    3.完成进行式表示动作一直在进行(或反复发生,往往与表示一段时间的状语连用。
    Having been standing the whole morning,I felt so tired.
    I'm sorry to have been troubling you all the time.
    4.非限定动词的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者时,要用相应的被动式。
    I want this to be done again.
    I object to being criticised so stupidly.
    The letter written by Tom was funny.(过去分词只有一般式,但自身有被动意义。)
    三. 主动式表示被动意义的用法
    1.动名词用于need, require, want(需要),demand 以及deserve之后要用主动式。
    My bike needs repairing. = My bike needs to be repaired.
    2.动名词用于worth之后要用主动式。
    The book is worth reading.
    3.动名词在past(超过)、for(适合于)、beyond (超过)等介词后要用主动式。
    Those trousers are past mending.
    This is a room for sleeping in.
    4.当不定式作定语,主语又是不定式的动作执行者时,能常用主动式。
    I have letters to write.我要写几封信。(我写—主谓关系)
    5.当不定式作表语,主语又是不定式的动作承受者时,通常用主动式。
    The book is easy to read.= It is easy to read the book. (读书—动宾关系)
    四、不定式不带to的用法
    1.不定式用于Why和Why not 之后不带to。
    Why spend so much money?
    Why not ask Susan to help you?
    2.当介词except、but前有do、did、does 时, 其后的不定式不带to。
    Can't you do anything but ask silly questions?(有do,无to)
    试比较:There's nothing to do but wait.
    There's no choice but to wait.(无do,需要to)
    3.不定式在had better/rather 、 would rather/sooner, rather/sooner than等短语后不带to。
    You'd better try again.
    I'd rather be told

the truth than be lied to.

  

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