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关于英语动词不定式作后置修饰语的若干问题

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

 英语非限是动词有三种形式:动词不定式(The Infinitive)、分词(The participle)和动名词(The Gerun d)。这三种形式都可以用作名词(或短语)的后置修饰语。作后置修饰语的可以是单一非限定动词,也可以是 “非限定动词+状语或宾语”构成的非限定动词短语。本文拟结合笔者多年教学实践,并参考R.Quirk等人著的 "A comprehensiveGrammar of the English Language"(Published in U.S.A by LongmanGroup Limited.1985 )的有关章节(以下简称(CGOEL),就动词不定式作后置修饰语的若干问题进行探讨。
    一、动词不定式作限制性后置修饰语
    动词不定式作限制性后置修饰语可以有各种不同的时态:
    to meet/to have met The girl to be met/to have been met is my sister.
    to be meeting
    1.不定式作后置修饰语有时只能用主动语态,有时只能用被动语态。有时能用主动语态也能用被动语态, 意思相同,有时又不同。什么时候可以用主动语态,什么时候可以用被动语态,要根据不同的语境来决定。
    作后置修饰语的不定式与被修饰的名词存在动宾关系时(即不定式前的被修饰名词是不定式动作的对象) ,用主动语态或被动语态在语义上没有什么区别,如:
    This is a difficult question to answer/to be answered.
    He is the man to select/to be selected.
    如果较多地考虑做动作的人而较少地考虑动作的本身,用主动语态的不定式显得比较自然,如:
    This is the best loading port to choose. for us/for you to choose. that we/you should choose.
    但在某些情况下,只有用被动语态的不定式才显得自然,如:
    He is the only man/to be killed to kill in the accident.
    The book to be found/to find in the room is George's.
    有时不定式虽然与被修饰的名词存在动宾关系,但又与句子主语或间接宾语存在主谓关系,这时用主动语 态比较妥当,用被动语态的不定式就显得不自然,如:
    to do/to be done. I have got a lot of homework
    that I can/must do.
    to read/to be read. I've given yor the newspaper
    that yor can read.
    试比较:
    Have you anything to take/to be taken?
    anything that you take./anything that will
    be taken by me or someone else.
    如果作表语的不定式与主语存在动宾关系,这时只能用被动语态不定式。下面句子中的不定式被动语态不 宜改为主动语态:
    The exercises are to be done in the class.
    trucks are to be turned out next month.
    但也有例外。下面句子中作表语的不定式虽然与主语存在动宾关系,但习惯上要用主动语态不定式:
    The goods are to sell.
    He is to blame.
    如果我们要将上述不定式与另一个不定式被动语态进行比较,则可以用被动语态。
    The flat is to be sold,not to be let.
    He is to be blamed,not to be praised.
    但在there be结构的句子中,用主动语态不定式或被动语态不定式在意思上无多少差别。如果我们更多地 考虑做动作的人而较少地考虑动作的本身,就用主动语态不定式,如:
    There was no time to lose/to be lost.
    There are some books to choose/to be choosen.
    2.作为后置修饰语的不定式相对应于一个关系分句。不定式在相对应的关系分句中,关系代词不仅可以是 主语,也可以是宾语。此外,不定式转换成关系分句也可由关系副词(作状语)引导,如:
    to meet you 作主语:The girl is Mary.
    who will meet you
    (for you)to ask 作宾语:The girl is my sister.
  &nbs

p; (whom)you should ask   

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