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英语条件从句的几种特殊表达法

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

    (宁县早胜中学 李俊义)
    虚拟语气是高中英语教学中的一个重点,又是一个难点。在虚拟语气的句子中,条件从句的表示方法较多 ,通常用if来引导,如If Iwere you,I would study much harder,在有些情况下,条件从句也可用其他方法 来表示。下面谈几种条件从句的特殊表达法。
    一、混合虚拟条件句
    如果条件从句的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生,主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别根据各自所表示的 时间加以调整。这种句子叫做混合虚拟条件句。如:
    If he had followed my advice,he would be quite all rightnow.(从句述说过去,主句述说现在)
    If China had not been liberated,the working people wouldstill be leading a miserable life.( 从句表示与过去的事实相反,主句说明与现在的事实相反)
    二、省略if的倒装条件句
    如果条件从句的谓语动词包含有were或助动词、情态动词had,should,could,有时可将连词if省去,而将 条件从句的主语置于were,had,should,could之后。这种用法主要用于书面语,如:
    Were I(=If I were)in your place,I wouldn't give it up soearly.
    Had I(=if I had)known,I might have joined you in thediscussion.
    Should you(=If you should)be interested,I have a book onthe subject you might like.
    三、省略主句,只保留if(only)的条件句
    虚拟条件句中的表示结果的主句有时形式上可以省略,但意义仍然存在。这种句子只保留一个if(only)条 件从句,表达说话人的强烈愿望。如:If(only)she were my sister!她是我的妹妹就好了!
    四、含蓄虚拟条件句
    有时虚拟条件句不用条件从句,而是通过上下文或用介词短语等表示出来。这种句子叫做含蓄虚拟条件句 。下面列举几种。
    1.在主语词组中表示含蓄条件
    (1)主语是动词不定式短语,表示含蓄条件。
    It would be good to leave the matter in his charge.如果把这件事让他负责就好了。
    该句可改写成:It would be good if we could leave thematter in his charge.
    (2)主语是动名词短语表示含蓄条件。
    Doing the work in that way would have cost much more timeand money.如果用那种方法做这项工作就 会耗费更多的时间和金钱。
    该句可改写为:If we had done the work in that way,it wouldhave cost much more time and money .
    (3)主语中带有定语从句表示含蓄条件。
    A man who is always thinking of others would not have donesuch a thing.如果一个人总为别人着想 ,他就不会做出这种事情来。
    (4)主语中含有作定语的分词或形容词表示含蓄条件。
    Anyone being his position would have made no reply.任何人处在他那个位置,都不会回答的。
    该句可改写为:If anyone had been in his position he wouldhave made no reply.
    A less complicated problem would have easily been solved.如果问题不是很复杂的话,那么就很容易 解决了。
    该句可改写为:If the problem had been less complicated,it would have easily been solved.
    2.用介词短语表示含蓄条件
    We could have done better under more favourableconditions.
    如果在更好的条件下,我们会干得更好。
    此句可改写为:If the conditions had been more favourable, we could have done better.
    This change could not have taken place without a solid industrial foundation.
    如果没有坚定的工业基础,发生这样的变化是不可能的。
    此句可改写为:If it had been without a solid industrial foundation,this ch

ange could not hav e taken place.

  

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