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谈谈高三英语词汇的归类总复习

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

 纵观历届高考,从单项选择、完形填空、短文改错、单词拼写乃至阅读理解的考查无一不是对词汇的考查 。到了高三,仅仅英语一科就有厚厚九本书(新版教材),两千多单词,数不清的习语搭配和同义词,加上复 杂的语法、语音,的确使英语复习显得很难而又“漫无边际”。怎样才能花较少的时间取得较大的复习效果呢 ?下面笔者就多年来从事高三教学所得的点滴体会,参照历届高考词汇考查频繁的内容,从语法、习语、辨析 和拼写等四方面将语音、词汇、语法和拼写融为一体,谈谈英语词汇的归类总复习。
    一、从用法上复习归纳词汇,过语法关
    英语词汇大多具有本身词义外,还有其语法功能,我们在复习时就不要把着眼点单纯放在单词记忆上,而 要从它们的语法功能上去把握它们。如在复习动词时我们就要根据它们变化形式多、搭配活跃等特点,从它们 的用法上进行分类记忆。这样,既可记住词汇,又可攻克语法难关。
    1.宾语不同,意义也不同
    英语中有些动词可同时后接不定式和动名词作宾语,但意义不同。它们是高考试题的考查重点。这类词主 要有:
    go on doing(继续干同一件事) go on to do(接着去干另一件事)
    stop doing sth.(停止正在干的事) stop to do sth.(停下来去干某事)
    regret doing(后悔干了某事) regret to do(相当于be sorry to do)
    forget/remember doing(忘记/记得已做过的事) forget/rem-ember to do(忘记/记得要干的事)
    mean doing(意味着干…) mean to do(想干…)
    try doing(尝试做) try to do(设法做)
    (95高考)"You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.""Well,now I regret_____ ___that."
    A.to do B.to be doing
    C.to have done D.having done
    ───────(画线项为答案,下同)
    (92高考)"I usually go there by train.""Why not____________by boat for a change?"
    A.to try going B.trying to go
    C.to try and go D.try going
    ──────
    2.都可接宾语和宾补,形式却不同
    某些动词如forbid,advise,allow,permit,admit,consider等直接接动词作宾语时要用动名词,但接宾补时 ,宾补要用不定式。如:
    We forbid smoking here.(宾语)
    We forbid you to smoke here.(宾补)
    You are forbidden to smoke here.(主补)
    (87高考)They would not allow him_________across the ene-my line.
    A.to risk going B.risking going
    ────────
    C.for risk to go D.risk going
    3.宾语不同、语态不同,意义却相同
    有些词如need,require,want,deserve等后可接不定式(要用被动形式),可接动名词(要用主动形式表被 动意义),可与worth,worthy一并记忆。两种形式意义相同。如:
    The room requires to be cleaned/cleaning.
    (85高考)This sentence needs______________.
    A.an improvement B.improve
    C.improving D.improved
    ──────
    4.只接不定式作宾语的词和词组
    只接不定式作宾语的词和词组有:decide,expect,refuse,wish,hope,order,promise,pretend,offer,hap pen,seem,make up one's mind,used,be about,be able,have等。如:
    (89高考)She pretended____________me when I passed by.
    A.not to see B.not seeing
    ──────
    C.to not see D.having not seen
    5.只接动名词作宾语的词和词组
    只接动名词作宾语的词和词组:mind,risk,avoid,enjoy,excape,keep,suggest,appreciate,practise,de lay,fini

sh,feel like,look forward to,can't help,keep(on),miss,be used to,excuse,be worth,imagine ,put off,give up等。如:

  

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