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(推荐)经验与贫乏——论现代性语境下的本雅明(上)

时间:2007-3-28栏目:中国文学论文

   摘 要
    
     瓦尔特·本雅明(1892-1940)是德国现代著名思想家,他的思想博大精深卓尔不群。他善于将艺术作品的形式分析和哲学社会理论相结合,并运用诗化哲学的语言表达他极富才情的深刻思想。本雅明在世时影响虽小,但逝世后却在西方学界(60年代)引起轰动效应,“本雅明热”至今不衰。西方本雅明的研究既广且深,但从现代性角度切入本雅明思想研究的专著还较少见,更多的是部分论及或将本雅明与他人共同论述。前者如法国学者R·洛希里兹的专著《艺术的去魅——本雅明的哲学》中有一章名:“现代性的代价”,内容涉及儿童和记忆、讲故事艺术的终结、资本主义抒情诗歌、寓言、灵韵的消失等;后者如D·弗瑞斯比在其著作《现代性的碎片》中将本雅明与齐美尔、克拉考尔相提并论,强调本雅明同他们一样,关注的核心在于对现代性体验的短暂易逝的特性。中国的本雅明研究起步较晚,90年代中后期以来,开始有了一些零星文章从现代性角度探讨本雅明的思想,比如张法、牛宏宝都在其美学史著中涉及到了这一点。
     综观国内外关于本雅明现代性思想的研究,要么角度单一缺乏系统,要么浮泛零碎缺乏深入。本论文试图系统、全面、深入把握本雅明理论的现代性建构并评析其意义,提出笔者自己的看法。本选题可参与到国内方兴未艾的现代性前沿学术研究热潮中,为中国社会现代性进程提供镜鉴;并可通过本雅明这一学术思想重镇,参照梳理20世纪西方现代性理论发展的历程与思想脉络,具有较强的实践意义和理论价值。
     本文内容主要有三个方面,第一章从时间观哲学的角度,探析本雅明反对历史进步论的线性时间观;第二章侧重于解析发达资本主义时代背景下的抒情诗人的处境及命运。第三章主要论述本雅明对艺术理论现代性的建构:古典的灵韵艺术与现代性机械复制艺术的成因、特点及其区别。这三部分既互相独立,又相互渗透,并且从哲学到社会学再到文艺理论构成层层递进的三个方面,从而形成一个整体。
    
     关键词:本雅明 现代性 抒情诗人 灵韵 机械复制
     Abstract
    
     Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) was a great modern German thinker who had an extensive and profound scholarship which made him preeminent in his field. Being adept in combining the formal analysis of artistic works into sociological and philosophical theories, he preferred to express his talented insights in a poetic-philosophic language. During his life-time, he was not widely recognized. But, after his death (1960’s), he caused a great sensation in the western intellectual circle. Even today, the enthusiasm in Benjamin is still on the move. The study of the western students on Benjamin covered a wide range and cut into depth of his theory. However, monographs looking into Benjamin from the viewpoint of modernity are rare. More often than not, the students devoted part of their works to the discussion of Benjamin or discussed him together with others in their works. The former practice includes the French scholar. R. Rochlitz, who wrote a chapter, the Price of Modernity in his monograph the Disenchantment of Art: “the philosophy of Walter Benjamin, dealing with chidhood and memory, the end of the Art of story-telling, lyric poetry at the epoch of capitalism allegory and the evaporation of the Aura, etc. The latter practice includes D. Frisby who placed Benjamin on a par with Simmel, Kracauer in his work Fragments of Modernity, claiming that Benjamin, similar to the others, focused on the transience of the experience of modernity. In China study on Benjamin started at a later time. The late 1990s, students began to write criticism on the modernity of Benjamin’s thinking. For example, Zhang Fa and Niu Hongbao mentioned this point in their works on aesthetics.
     Reviewing the study on Benjamin’s thinking on modernity both domestically and abroad, one can see that it is undergone either from one perspective and hence is lacking in system or in a superficial fragmentary fashion and hence is lacking in depth. The author intends to made a systematic and profound investigation into Benjamin’s theoretic constru

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