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英语写作常见错误分析

时间:2007-4-27栏目:英语论文

下面我们对一些在英语写作中典型的病句实例逐一加以剖析.
 


一. 不一致(Disagreements)
所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致 时态不一致及代词不一 致等.
例1. When one have money ,he can do what he want to .
(人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么.)
剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致.
改为: Once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)


二. 修饰语错位(Misplaced Modifiers)
英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化.对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解.例1. I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.
剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末.


三. 句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)
在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解.可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生.
例1. There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .
剖析:本句后半部分"for example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句.
改为:There are many ways to know society ,for example ,by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.


四. 悬垂修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)
所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清.例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中"at the age of ten"只点出十岁时,但没有说明” 谁”十岁时.按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了.
改为:
When I was ten, my grandfather died.
例1. To do well in college, good grades are essential.
剖析:句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚.
改为:
To do well in college, a student needs good grades.


五. 词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)
“词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等.
例1. None can negative the importance of money.
剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。
改为:
None can deny the importance of money.


六. 指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)
指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句:
Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.
(玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。)
读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:
Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.
例1. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.
剖析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。改为:
We can also know society by serving it ourselves.


七. 不间断句子(Run-on Sentences)
什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。
例1. There are many ways we get to know the outside world.
剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。
改为:
There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:
There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside
world


八. 措词毛病(Troubles in Diction)
Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。
例1. The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.
(农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。)
剖析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。
改为:
The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads

to pollution.


九. 累赘(Redundancy)
言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如:
In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.
本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

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