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英语医学科研论文的格式和要求 (上)

时间:2006-11-26栏目:医学论文写作方法

[关键词] 医学科研

健康网讯:

4) 讨论部分 



总的要求:The author should tell the reader what the results mean by pl



acing them in the context of previous published studies of the problem,



 即:与先有研究相比,本研究有何意义。 



具体要求: 



A.  简要说明研究背景(background) 



B.  简要介绍总的发现(general findings); 



C.  介绍具体要点(introduction of points) 



D.  与现有发现(若有)进行比较(comparison in the context of other stu



dies) 



E.  意义(suggested meaning) 



F.  结论(conclusion) 



G.  前瞻研究(future studies) 







结论往往是论文中最长也是最难写的部分,主要原因是作者要对研究结果和发现进



行分析、推断、演绎和推理,要求作者具有很强逻辑思维能力和英语文字组织能力



。此外,这部分时态比较复杂,要分清实验过程和结果(过去时)与分析意见(确



定:现在时;不确定或假设:过去时)的区别;他人研究结果(过去时或现在完成



时)与本研究结果(过去时)的区别;普遍适用的结论(现在时)与只适用本研究



的结论(过去时)的其别等。因此,对于however, may, might, could, would, 



possibly, probably, be likely to 等词(组)的使用以及we believe (think 



/ consider) that, to our knowledge, in our experience (practice) 等插入



语的使用就显得格外重要。 







示例: 



Parenteral nutrition is being used with increasing frequency as a prima



ry source of caloric support in adult and pediatric patients with gastr



ointestinal problems. Numerous complications have been associated with 



the administration of TPN, including a significantly increased incidenc



e of gallbladder disease [3-5,7]. The data here suggest that cholecyste



ctomy is often required for the management of symptomatic gallbladder d



isease in this group of patients, and is associated with significant ri



sks.[说明研究背景,包括意义] 



Of the 35 patients who required cholecystectomy for TPN-induced gallbla



dder disease, operative morbidity and mortality were 54 percent and 11 



percent, respectively. Maingot [8] has stated that cholecystectomy “is



 one of the simplest and safest of the abdominal operations, and is ass



ociated with a low operative mortality rate (about 0.5 percent). A revi



ew of the pediatric literature suggests that when cholecystectomy is pe



rformed in children, the operative morbidity is less than 10 percent, a



nd the mortality is less than 1 percent. [8,9] Glenn [11] has reported 



a mortality rate of less than 0.1 percent in over 5,000 patients under 



the age of 50 years who underwent cholecystectomy. The morbidity and mo



rtality observed in our group of receiving long-term TPN, therefore, we



re far in excess of what would be expected for a population of patients



 whose mean age was 29 years. [提出本研究主要发现并将其与其他研究发现相



比较] 



Our data suggest that are specific factors unique to patients who requi



re long-term TPN that contribute to the increased mortality and morbidi



ty associated with cholecystectomy in this select group.[以下,作者用较



大篇幅分析了这类病人死亡率和并发症增高的临床、实验室和手术等方面的原因,



原文从略] 



Based on the results of our studies, we believe that early cholecystect



omy is indicated in patients with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Obvi



ously, all patients with symptomatic disease should undergo cholecystec



tomy unless there specific medical contraindications. These operations 



should be performed in a timely, elective fashion because delay may res



ult in the need for urgent surgery and thereby, increase an already hig



h risk. Although recent studies have sug

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