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英语写作中句式的多样化

时间:2007-6-13栏目:英语写作指导

句式就是句子的结构方式,也就是句子的式样或格式。不同的思想内容要用不同的句式来表达;而同一思想内容也可以用不同的句式来表达。句式不同,表达效果也就不同。只有句式多样化,文章才会生动有趣,充满活力。可是,在实际写作中,初学写作的学生往往一篇文章都是千篇一律的简单句,文章单调乏味,毫无生气。笔者认为,恰当地使用某些方法或手段有助于实际表达形式的多样化,增强表达效果。兹将常用方法简单介绍如下。

一、改变句子开头

许多学生在写作中倾向于用与人有关系的词性,用名词和代词作为句子的开头,如 People,We,I,He,They,She等。但这种开头见多了,难免让人厌倦。试比较:

A.People throughout the country have greatly demanded all kinds of nutritious food.

B.There is a great demand across the country for all kinds of nutritious food.

第一句改用非人称名词作为主语开头,第二句则用there +be句型开头。这样既改变了主语+谓语+宾语单调句型,又把想强调的意思突出出来。实际上,为了把文章写得生动活泼,除了用主语开头外,还可以用句子的其他成分开头。

1.用副词开头

Too often,students stray into the habit of cheating on tests.

2.用同位语开头

Air,water and oxygen,everything that is necessary for life.

3.用状语开头

Dark and empty,the house looked very different from the way I remembered it.

4.用表语开头

Equally essential to the highest success in learning a language are intense interest plus persistent effort.

5.用宾语开头

My advice you would not listen to;my helps you laughed at.Now you will have what you asked for.

6.以短语修饰语开头

1)以介词短语开头

To me the news was very interesting,but to my wife very boring.

2)以分词短语开头

Disturbed by the discord of American life in recent decades,Menchester took flight for the pacific islands.

3)以不定式短语开头

To pass the exam,you should work very hard.

二、巧用连接词

有的学生在作文中使用过多简单句,成了简单句堆砌;有的写复杂句时,动辄用so, and,then,but,or,however,yet等非但达不到丰富表达方式的目的,反而使句子结构松散、呆板。为了避免这种现象,可以通过使用连接词,尤其是一些表示从属关系的连接词,如 who,which,that,because,since,although,after,as,before,when,whenever,if,unless,as if等,不仅能够丰富句型,而且还能够把思想表达得更清楚,意义更连贯。例如:

Natural resources are very limited.They will be exhausted in the near future.It is not true.But it becomes a major concern around the world.This is a widely accepted fact.

这段文字用简单句表达,它们之间内在的逻辑关系含糊不清,意思支离破碎。如果使用连接词,将单句与其前后合并,形成主次关系,就把一个比较复杂的内容和关系表达得层次清楚、结构严谨。例如:

It is a widely accepted

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