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JEFC教材被动句教学解析

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

被动语态在JEFC教材中直到第三册Unit 16—Unit 18(Lesson 61—Lesson 72)中才作为语法项目进行专 门训练, 并经过整整三个单元共12课才能完成这一知识点的教学,可见被动语态的难度。
    以上三个单元12课出现的有关被动语态的语言知识可归结如下:
    1.从时态上说,出现了一般现在时和一般过去时中的被动语态,如:
    It's used for cutting.
    It's was made in China.
    2.从句式上说,出现了陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句中的被动语态,如:
    English is spoken by many people.
    Were they built in 1860?
    What's it made of?
    When was it founded?
    Where's tea grown?
    3.例句中出现的动词(或词组)有:
    to be dug/founded /grown /harvested /kept /knocked /looked after/made [of]/picked/p lanted /produced /pusheddown/spoken/tied to/used [for]/watered
    4.依据教材内容句子结构可以达到这样的复杂程度:It will beused as a tool by people in the wo rld in some days. 格式是:主语+情态动词+加be动词+过去分词+as/for 表示功用+动作执行者+方位 状语+时间状语。这一格式中某些成分可以省略或移位。
    JEFC教材主要根据功能派的教学原则编写,提倡通过不同的教学方式,运用多种教学媒体,创设具体语境 ,全方位地培养学生的语言能力。与传统教材相比,淡化了语言知识的教学。这无疑是先进的,但也并非是完 美的。就被动语态知识而言,以上所述的三个单元12课中有关被动语态的知识就不是很完整。所以我们以为, 使用JEFC教材教学被动语态,至少应在以下两方面进行必要的补充:
    一、在指导学生操练时,教师应有意识地结合学生已学知识,将被动语态与时态结合起来,通过替换练习 ,使学生掌握被动语态在各种时态中的变换形式。现以动词make为例,联系学生已学过的八种时态,应该让学 生熟悉并操练如下句型:
    (1)…is/am/are made… (一般现在时)
    (2)…is/am/are being made… (现在进行时)
    (3)…has/have been made… (现在完成时)
    (4)…was/were made… (一般过去时)
    (5)…was/were being made… (过去进行时)
    (6)…had/been made… (过去完成时)
    (7)…will/shall be made… (一般将来时)
    (8)…would be made… (过去将来时)
    进行以上各种时态变换操练时又应注意如下几点:
    1.例句由易到难,由简单到复杂。仍以动词make为例:
    It was made.
    It was made by Wang Lin.
    It was made for Tom.
    It was made in China.
    It was made in 1990.
    It was made by Wang Lin in China.
    It was made by Wang Lin in China in 1990.
    It was made for Tom by Wang Lin in China in 1990.
    在此基础上,进行两种变换练习:一是变一般过去时为其它各种不同的时态(句子在表达上也须作相应的 修改),使句子在不同时态之间转换。二是将句子在肯定——否定,陈述——疑问之间转换,比如:
    The letter has been finished.
    The letter has not been finished.
    Has the letter been finished?
    2.在教(7)(8)两种时态(一般将来时、过去将来时)的过程中,教会学生使用带情态动词的被动结构 和带不定式的被动结构,即结合will/shall/would be+(p. p)结构,教会学生掌握…can/may /must/ should/has to/have to/to be going to+be+(p.p. )…结构,以及各种结构的变换方式。如:
    It will be given to him.
    The building shall be founded next year.
    Apples cannot be kept for a long time.

    The baby must be looked after carefully.

  

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