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谈高考英语试题中“省略”的考查

时间:2007-4-21栏目:英语论文

 对省略现象的考查已成为近年来英语高考试题中的常考点。因为省略这种语法手段既可避免重复,突出新 的信息,又能使上下文更紧密地连接起来。这也正符合现代生活快节奏的需要。因此,在英语口语中,只要不 损害结构和引起歧义,能省略的地方就尽可能省略。
    但有时省略的成分,在句中占有相当的份量,能表达一定的信息,这无疑就增加了试题的难度。因此在解 题时,除了应特别注意进行语境分析,从上文或上、下文中找出相关的省略成份外,还要对常用的省略知识有 所了解,从而做到有的放矢,找出解题的突破口。下面就该问题作一分析。
    一、复合句中的省略现象
    复合句中的省略现象通常出现在状语从句中。
    一)在含有比较结构的复合句中,常在as或than引导的分句中省略某些与主句相同的成分或省略在特定上 下文或特定情景中某些不言而喻的成分;或整个as/than从句。如:
    1.The pianos in the other shop will be______, but_____.(MET90)
    A.cheaper;not as better
    B.more cheap; not as better
    C.cheaper; not as good
    D.more cheap; not as good
    本题应选C。分别为cheaper than those in this shop 和theyare not as good as those in this s hop的省略。
    2.John plays football________,if not better than, David.(NMET94)
    A.as well B.as well as
    C.so well D.so well as
    本题应选B。根据上下文可看出if not better than 为if Johndoesn't play football better than David(plays football) 的省略。那么,排除这个条件的话,John和David就踢得一样好了。 故要用副词well 的同级比较的肯定式。
    3.How beautifully she sings! I've never heard _______ .(NMET96)
    A.the better voice B.a good voice
    C.the best voice D.a better voice
    本题应选D。从整个语境来分析,后句中的比较状语从句than hers被省略掉了。故此题应选比较级。
    二)如果复合句中的时间、条件、原因状语从句用了主语+be+分词结构,且主、从句主语一致时,可省 略从句的连接词、主语和be助动词,只保留分词和其它成分。如:
    4.________in thought, he almost ran into the car in frontof him.(NMET96)
    A.Losing B.Having lost
    C.Lost D.To lose
    本题应选C。Lost in thought 为As he was lost in thought之省略。
    5.________more attention, the trees could have grownbetter.(MET90)
    A.Given B.To give
    C.Giving D.Having given
    本题应选A。Given more attention为If they were given moreattention之省略。
    三)在含有定语从句的复合句中,如果定语从句用了进行时态或被动语态,且关系代词在从句中作主语时 ,可省略关系代词和助动词。只保留分词或其它成分。如:
    6.The Olympic Games,_______ in 776 B.C., did not includewomen players until 1912.(NMET97)
    A.first playing B.to be first played
    C.first played D.to be first playing
    本题应选C。first played 为which was first played 之省略。
    7.Do you know the boy__________ under the big tree? (MET89)
    A. lay B.lain C.laying D.lying
    本题应选D。lying为who is lying之省略。
    8.Most of the artists ________ to the party were fromSouth Africa.(MET90)
    A.invited B.to invite
    C.being invited D.have been invited
    本题应选A。invited为who were invited之省略。
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bsp;   9.The first textbooks________for teaching English as aforeign language came out in the 1 6th century.

  

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