写作指导:如何写出高分英语作文

时间: 2019-12-17 栏目: 英语写作指导

  1. 内容切题

  内容切题是命题作文的基本要求,考生可从以下几个方面入手:

  第一要认真审题。根据题目类别,弄清文体的要求,并判明文章的种类(议论文、说明文、记叙文),同时确定文章要阐明的主题或要表达的中心思想,若题目已经提供了提纲,还要注意弄清各提纲要点之间的逻辑关系。考生在拿到作文题后,切勿惟恐时间不够,提笔就写。一旦跑题,发现了再改就来不及了,常言道:“磨刀不误砍柴工”。

  第二要注意设计安排段落。根据文章的中心思想,确定各个段落的主题内容和主题句。如果是议论文,一般要从论点的正反两个方面来考虑,首先是某观点的合理成分或某物的长处,然后是该观点的不合理成分或该物的短处,最后阐明自己的观点。如果题目提供了提纲,只要把提纲扩展成主题句即可。

  第三要避免将记忆里较熟悉的句子生拉硬扯地搬进作文,使作文结构松散,意思不明确,甚至会偏离主题。

  2. 表达清楚,文字连贯

  文章要做到表达清楚,文字连贯,文章各段落就必须根据提纲所确立的不同主题来展开,而且各段落的主题句要将段落的各个部分凝聚在一起,流利地表达段落大意,使段落中各部分以及段落之间的联系一目了然。下面,我们来看一篇99年CET-4考试范文:

  Reading Selectively Or Extensively

  How should we read? Should we read selectively or extensively? Everyone has his own view.

  Some people think we should read selectively. They argue that with the development of modern science and technology, more and more books are published every day. It is impossible for us to read all the books. What’s more, there are many bad books that are poisonous to our mind, and we shouldn’t read them. Since we can’t read all the books, and we shouldn’t read bad books, we must read selectively.

  But others may not agree. They emphasize that today’s society is not what it used to be. If you want to be successful, you must read widely and acquire knowledge in both natural sciences and humanities. If a man knows much in one field but knows nothing in others, he may be useless. Since we must have many kinds of knowledge, we must read extensively.

  Who’s right? There is a lot to be said for both sides of the argument. However, I think we should read extensively first and then learn deeply about the subject we are interested in.

  在上面的作文中,考生采用了明确的主题句,各段落都紧紧围绕主题句写作而成。文章上下文衔接紧凑、连贯,例如第二段开头用Some people think…, 第三段开头用Others may not agree…, 而最后一段用一个问句Who’s right?作为连接,都显得相当自然。另外,英语中常见的一些连接手段,如what’s more, and, since, but, one (field)…others, however, first, then等,也都用的很恰当。

  3. 句式有变化

  有些考生对写作没信心,不敢大胆地使用所掌握的语言基础知识,包括英语句法知识,结果整篇文章都是以主、谓、宾句式为主的简单句子,文章显得刻板无生气。实际上,,同汉语一样,英语的句子结构也是丰富多彩,变化多样的。阅读下面的段落,注意句式的变化:

  Clearly our schools and society face the same problems. It has become necessary for all people, not just educators, to be more aware of the problems. Although some intervention programs have been implemented and in some cases are very successful, it is becoming more obvious that these problems are going to continue and will have a direct consequence on our future in this country. Unfortunately, we as a society tend to look for the “quick fix” to our problems without realizing the consequences for the future. Our society needs to understand that the schools are not responsible for the cause of these problems or the solutions, but rather, all aspects of society, including schools, are involved and need to collectively work together if we are ever to make progress toward resolving these problems in the long run.

  在这一段落中既有长短句子的交插运用,又有语序的变化,既有简单句又有复合句,不失为在句式变化方面的一个典范。

  4. 句子结构和用词正确

  要在写作中选择恰当的词汇,使用正确的句子结构,首先要勤学多练,背记常用词和短语,扩大词汇量,拓展知识面。要深刻理解所背词语的内在含义,并了解它们所使用的语言环境。为了备考应试,要熟记一些常用的过渡词和英语句型,切忌自己编造汉语式的句子和词组。尽量使用学习过的、比较熟悉的、有把握的句式和词汇。

  In the world, millions of people believe that some things can bring good luck for them. They make their spirit to depend on these things. We say they have a religion.

  Some of these people have a strange religion. They believe in “Luck number”, they believe luck number would bring good luck. When they do sth. with relation to numbers, they usually choose the number they believe.

  In fact, many people said that they don’t believe it, but most of them can tell a number they like. Many people like the number 8 or 6 in China. They believe 8 can make them succeded in business and make them uhealth. They also believe six bring the good luck, and things is smooth without a hitch. In fact, many people couldn’t explain why the number can bring good luck and How he know just the number is his luck number. Sometimes, people decide one things depended on their feeling, because they usually couldn’t know whole the thing. Maybe, One day, Sb. Can tell the reason and truth.

  这是一篇得8分的试卷,内容切题,并有所发挥,但有些地方的表达不够清楚;结构还算符合要求,文字勉强连贯,但是语言方面的错误多,尤其是在主谓搭配、动词的时态、名词的单复数、词性、语序等方面。此外有的拼写也不规范,如:sb, sth。 画线部分可作以下修改:

  to depend → depend

  They believe in “ Luck number”, they → They believe in “ lucky numbers ”, so they

  sth. → something

  said → say

  succeded → succeed

  uhealth → wealthy

  bring the good luck → brings good luck

  things is → the things are

  How he know → how he knows

  people decide one things → people’s decision on one thing

  depended → depends

  usually couldn’t → couldn’t usually

  One day → one day

  Sb. Can → someone can

  另外,考生还要注意卷面印象分这一问题。卷面要力求整洁,答题纸四周都要留空边,正确使用标点符号。短文要避免使用令阅卷老师反感的词句,如“Do you know…? Let me tell you”之类的过分口语化的表达方式。

  最后,写作考试过程中合理分配时间,对提高成绩,稳定发挥起着重要作用。